One Liner (21/05/2019)
Published on May 21, 2019, 10 a.m.

101. Pellagra is because of deficiency of ? Niacin

102. lnheritance of Cockayne syndrome ? Autosomal recesssiye

1 03. Use of SDS-PAGE ? To check purity of proteins

104. Transposons are ? Jumping genes

1. Congo red staining for amyloid under polarized light shows ? Yellow green/ Apple green birefringence

2. Serum marker indicating active viral replication in HBV infection ? HBeAg, HBV-DNA

3. Negrr bodies are seen in which condition ? Rabies

4. Rheumatic fever MC affects ? Mitral valve

5. Heart faiiure cells are ? Hemosiderin laden alveolar macrophages

tr- Biomarker which rises earliest in Ml ? Myoglobin

7 Flask shaped ulcer are seen in ? Amoebic liver abscess

B. Anti-gliadin antibodies are seen in ? Celiac disease

v. MC site of gastrinoma ? Duodenum

10 ln AML, Auer rods are numerous in ? M3

11 lncreased osmotic fragility is characteristic of ? Herediatry spherocytosis

12.  Christmas disease is due to deficiency of  ?Factor lX

13.  Adult polycystic kidney is inherited as ? Autosomal dominant

14 Community acquired pneumonia is MC caused by ? Streptococcus penumoniae

15. Disease caused by cotton inhalation ? Byssinosis

16 MC type of lung Ca in non-smokers ? Adenocarcinoma

17" Reactivation of pulmonary TB always occurs at ? Apex of lungs

IO MC feature of sarcoidosis on chest X-ray ? BiIateraI hiIar lymphadenoapthy

19. SLE is ? Type lll hypersensitivity reaction

20. HIV affects?  CD4 cells

21. Wilson disease is due to accumulation of ? Copper

22.Auiospleneclcmy is associated with ? Sickle cell disease

23. MC type of stomach malignancy ? Adenocarcinoma

24 .Organ MC involved in hydatid disease ? Liver

25. Noduiar glomerulosclerosis rs classically associated with ? Diabetes mellitus

26. Calcium ler,'eis in dystrophic calcification ? Normal

27.  Calcification seen in dead/ degenerated tissues with normal serum calcium levels ? Dystrophic calcification

28 Heart failure cells are seen in ? Lungs (alveoli)

29. t(9;22) translocation is seen in ? CML

30. Tumour marker for endodermal sinus tumour ? Alpha FetoProtein

31 Lepromin test is ? Type lV hypersensitivity reaction

32. Best diagnostic method for diagnosing amyloidosis ? Rectal biopsy

33. Retinoblastome is inherited as ? Autosomal dominant

34.  Only iinmunoglobulin that crosses placenta ? IgG

35. lmnlunoglobulin present in breast milk ? lgA

36. Pathological feature of malignant hypertension ? Fibrinoid necrosis

37.  Aschoff bodies are seen in ? Rheumatic heart disease

38. MC primary heart tumour ? Myxoma

39. MC involved artery in myocardial infarction ? Left Anterior Descending

40. Reid index is used for ? Chronic Bronchitis

1.Endogenous Anti-coagulants? •Thrombomodulin•Heparan sulphate • Endothelial Anti-aggregatory substances: PGI2, NO, EctoADPase•Fibrinolytic mechanisms (t-PA)

2.Exogenous Anti-coagulantsParenteral? Unfractionated heparin (UFH), Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), Synthetic heparin derivatives, Heparinoids

3.Exogenous Anti-coagulantsOral? Warfarin & other Coumarin derivatives

4.Parenteral anti-coagulants? Heparin, LMW Heparin,synthetic heparin derivatives.

5.Drug of choice for Anticoagulation during pregnancySide effects? • Bleeding • Heparin induced thrombocytopenia • Osteoporosis

6.Drug of choice for Anticoagulation during pregnancyAntidote? Protamine sulphate [1 mg = 100 U of heparin]•Slow IV•Used routinely to reverse anti-coagulant effectfollowing cardiac surgery•Anaphylactic reactions

7.Low molecular weight heparins? Dalteparin,,Enoxaparin,Nadroparin,Tinzaparin,Reviparine, Ardeparin, Pamparin

8.Synthetic heparin derivativesMOA? Mediate inhibition of Factor Xa via AT-III

9.Synthetic heparin derivativesFondaparinux?  t1/2: 17-21 hr, Approved for Px after hip/knee Sx, Rx of DVT& PE, C/I in CRF

10.Idraparinux? t1/2: 5-6 days

11.Other Parenteral Anti-coagulants? •Lepirudin•Bivalirudin•Argatroban•Danaparoid•Drotecoginalfa

12.PreparationsWithout fibrin specificity? Streptokinase, Anistreplase

13.PreparationsWith fibrin specificity? Alteplase, Reteplase, Tenecteplase

14.Clopidogrel? • Recent MI or stroke • Peripheral arterial disease • Acute coronary syndrome

15.GpIIb/IIIa inhibitorsParenteral? Abciximab, Eptifibatide, Tirofiban, Lamifiban

16.GpIIb/IIIa inhibitorsOral? Xemilofiban, Orbofiban, Sibrafiban, Roxifiban

17.ACE inhibitors? Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril,Perindopril, Ramipril, Fosinopril

18.Angiotensin(AT1receptor)blockers? Losartan,Candesartan, Irbesartan, Valsartan, Telmisartan

19.Calcium channel blockers? Verapamil, Diltiazem,Nifedipine, Felodipine, Amlodipine, Nitrendipine,Lacidipine.

20.? Adrenergic blockers? Propranolol, Metaprolol,Atenolol.

21.? + ? Adrenergic blockers? Labetalol, Carvedilol.

22.?1Adrenergicblockers? Prazosin,Terazosin,Doxazosin.

23.Centralsympatholytics(presynaptic?2rec.agonists)? Clonidine, Methyldopa.

24.VasodilatorsArteriolar? Hydralazine, Minoxidil, Diazoxide

25.VasodilatorsArteriolar+venous? Sodium nitroprusside

26.Sod. Nitroprusside? Contraindicated in eclampsia.

27.Dihydropyridine CCBs? Discontinuebeforelabourastheyweakenuterine contractions.

28.Cardioselective? blockers and those with ISA? Atenolol, Metoprolol, Pindolol, Acebutolol: maybe used if no other choice.

29.Pump failureFurosemide? Indicated if pulmonary wedgepressure is > 20 mm Hg.

30.Pump failureVasodilators? IV GTN or nitroprusside

31.Pump failureInotropic agents? Dopamine or dobutamine(rarely digoxin if AF present)

32.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapyNausea, vomiting? • 5HT3 receptor antagonists : ondansetron• Substance P Antagonist / NK 1 Receptor antagonist : aprepitant

33.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapyNeutropenia? •Filgrastim [G-CSF] •Sargramostim [GM-CSF]

34.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapyAnemia? Erythropoeitin [EPO]

35.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapy Hyperuricemia? • Allopurinol •Rasburicase

36.Veno-occlusive disease of liver due to busulphan, BCNU? Defibrotide

37.Cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin? •Dexrazoxane•ACE inhibitors

38.Hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide? •Mesna•N-acetyl cysteine irrigation•Saline irrigation

39.Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity? Amifostine

40.Pain due to vinblastine extravasation? •Hyaluronidase• Heat

41.Ototoxicity due to carboplatin? Thiosulfate

42.Mechlorethamineextravastion? •Sterile isotonic thiosulfate•Ice

43.Diagnostic uses of MAbPhysiological uses? 1. Urine pregnancy tests 2. Glucometer 3. Salmonella contamination of milk

44.Diagnostic uses of MAbPathological uses? 1. Igorvomab?Ca ovary 2. Votumab?Ca colon 3. Sulemab? Infections

45.Discovery of modern AMAsDomagk? Prontosil (sulfonamide).

46.Discovery of modern AMAsFleming? Penicillin G (Penicilliumnotatum).

47.Discovery of modern AMAsWaksman? Streptomycin (Actinomyces).

48.Range of Antimicrobial activityNarrow? Penicillin G

49.Range of Antimicrobial activityBroad? Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol

50.Type of actionStatic? Inhibitmicrobialgrowthe.g.Tetracyclines, chloramphenicol

51.Type of action Cidal? Kill microbes e.g. Penicillin G

52.Based on chemical structureNatural? Penicillin G

53.Based on chemical structureSemi-synthetic? Ampicillin

54.Based on chemical structureSynthetic? Ciprofloxacin

55.Organism against which it is activeAntibacterial? Penicillin G

56.Organism against which it is activeAntifungal? clotrimazole

57.Organism against which it is activeAntiviral? Zidovudine

58.Organism against which it is activeAntiprotozoal? Chloroquine

59.Organism against which it is activeAntihelminthic? Albendazole

60.Mechanism of actionInhibit of cell wall synthesis? Penicillin G

61.Mechanism of actionAct on cell membrane? Bacitracin, polymyxin

62.Mechanism of actionInhibit protein synthesis? Tetracycline

63.Mechanism of actionInhibit DNA synthesis? Acyclovir

64.Mechanism of actionAffect nucleic acid metabolism? Rifampicin

65.Mechanism of actionInhibit metabolic pathways? Sulfonamide

66.Problems associated with use of AMAsToxicityLocal? acidity

67.Problems associated with use of AMAs ToxicitySystemic? damage to kidney,    liver.

68.Problems associated with use of AMAs ToxicityNatural? Penicillin G & Gram negative bacteria

69.Properties of H1 receptor antagonists maximum anti-cholinergic effect? Promethazine

70.Local anesthetic effect? Promethazine

71.CYP450 Enzyme inhibition? Terfenadine

72.Clinical uses of ?-blockers SVT? Esmolol

73.PAF antagonism? Rupatadine

74.Anxiolytic? Hydroxyzine.

75.ICAM-1 down regulator? Azelastine

76.    Allergic reactions? Doxepin &Rupatadine for chronic urticarial

77.    Allergic reactions?Olopatadine for allergic conjunctivitis.

78.    Motion sickness? Meclizine

79.    Motion sickness? Promethazine

80.    Vertigo? Cinnarizine

81.    Nausea, vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy? Promethazine

82.    Anxiolytic? Hydroxyzine

83.    Early Parkinson’s disease / drug induced PD? Diphenhydramine

84.    A gents to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.TreatmentOralOral : Valgancilovir IV : Ganciclovir, Cidofair, foscarnet Intraocular : Ganciclovir

85.    Prophylaxis? Valganciclovir, Ganciclovir

86.    Current Rx for chronic HBV? • Lamivudine • IFN-a •Adefovirdipivoxil.

87.    Inhibitors of HBV DNA polymerase Nucleoside RTI? •Entecavir•Clevudine•Telbivudine•Emtricitabine.

88.    Hepatitis B vaccination-Accelerated schedule? 0, 7 & 21-30 days; booster after 1 year.

89.    Current Rx for acute HCV? Parenteral IFN-a2b

90.    Current Rx for chronic HCV? oral Ribavirin +Parenteral PegIFN-a.

91.    Inhibitors of HCV polymerase? •Viramidine (Taribavirin) •Valopicitabine (RNA dependent RNA polymerase).

92.    Non-structural (NS 3/4) HCV protease inhibitors? •Bocepravir•Telapravir.

93.    INFLUENZA M2 ion channel inhibitors? • Amantadine •Rimantadine.

94.    INFLUENZA Neuraminidase inhibitors? •Oseltamivir•Zanamivir.

95.    Hypertension? ?1 blockers -Prazocin / Terazocin / Doxazocin theyhave favorable effect on lipids/ glucose / urine acidmetabolism

96.    Raynauds phenomenon? Prazocin / Phenoxybenzamine / Phenolamine can beused as 2nd agents.

97.    Local vasoconstrictor excess? If mistakenly high dose of ? agonists are administered, to relieve the vasospasm phentolamineinfiltrated into the ischemic tissue

98.    Clinical uses of ?-blockers Hypertension? First line (?1 sele pref.)

99.    Clinical uses of ?-blockers Prophylaxis of anythmiafoll. MI? Metoprolol

100.    Clinical uses of ?-blockers SVT? Esmolol

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