101. Pellagra is because of deficiency of ? Niacin
102. lnheritance of Cockayne syndrome ? Autosomal recesssiye
1 03. Use of SDS-PAGE ? To check purity of proteins
104. Transposons are ? Jumping genes
1. Congo red staining for amyloid under polarized light shows ? Yellow green/ Apple green birefringence
2. Serum marker indicating active viral replication in HBV infection ? HBeAg, HBV-DNA
3. Negrr bodies are seen in which condition ? Rabies
4. Rheumatic fever MC affects ? Mitral valve
5. Heart faiiure cells are ? Hemosiderin laden alveolar macrophages
tr- Biomarker which rises earliest in Ml ? Myoglobin
7 Flask shaped ulcer are seen in ? Amoebic liver abscess
B. Anti-gliadin antibodies are seen in ? Celiac disease
v. MC site of gastrinoma ? Duodenum
10 ln AML, Auer rods are numerous in ? M3
11 lncreased osmotic fragility is characteristic of ? Herediatry spherocytosis
12. Christmas disease is due to deficiency of ?Factor lX
13. Adult polycystic kidney is inherited as ? Autosomal dominant
14 Community acquired pneumonia is MC caused by ? Streptococcus penumoniae
15. Disease caused by cotton inhalation ? Byssinosis
16 MC type of lung Ca in non-smokers ? Adenocarcinoma
17" Reactivation of pulmonary TB always occurs at ? Apex of lungs
IO MC feature of sarcoidosis on chest X-ray ? BiIateraI hiIar lymphadenoapthy
19. SLE is ? Type lll hypersensitivity reaction
20. HIV affects? CD4 cells
21. Wilson disease is due to accumulation of ? Copper
22.Auiospleneclcmy is associated with ? Sickle cell disease
23. MC type of stomach malignancy ? Adenocarcinoma
24 .Organ MC involved in hydatid disease ? Liver
25. Noduiar glomerulosclerosis rs classically associated with ? Diabetes mellitus
26. Calcium ler,'eis in dystrophic calcification ? Normal
27. Calcification seen in dead/ degenerated tissues with normal serum calcium levels ? Dystrophic calcification
28 Heart failure cells are seen in ? Lungs (alveoli)
29. t(9;22) translocation is seen in ? CML
30. Tumour marker for endodermal sinus tumour ? Alpha FetoProtein
31 Lepromin test is ? Type lV hypersensitivity reaction
32. Best diagnostic method for diagnosing amyloidosis ? Rectal biopsy
33. Retinoblastome is inherited as ? Autosomal dominant
34. Only iinmunoglobulin that crosses placenta ? IgG
35. lmnlunoglobulin present in breast milk ? lgA
36. Pathological feature of malignant hypertension ? Fibrinoid necrosis
37. Aschoff bodies are seen in ? Rheumatic heart disease
38. MC primary heart tumour ? Myxoma
39. MC involved artery in myocardial infarction ? Left Anterior Descending
40. Reid index is used for ? Chronic Bronchitis
1.Endogenous Anti-coagulants? •Thrombomodulin•Heparan sulphate • Endothelial Anti-aggregatory substances: PGI2, NO, EctoADPase•Fibrinolytic mechanisms (t-PA)
2.Exogenous Anti-coagulantsParenteral? Unfractionated heparin (UFH), Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), Synthetic heparin derivatives, Heparinoids
3.Exogenous Anti-coagulantsOral? Warfarin & other Coumarin derivatives
4.Parenteral anti-coagulants? Heparin, LMW Heparin,synthetic heparin derivatives.
5.Drug of choice for Anticoagulation during pregnancySide effects? • Bleeding • Heparin induced thrombocytopenia • Osteoporosis
6.Drug of choice for Anticoagulation during pregnancyAntidote? Protamine sulphate [1 mg = 100 U of heparin]•Slow IV•Used routinely to reverse anti-coagulant effectfollowing cardiac surgery•Anaphylactic reactions
7.Low molecular weight heparins? Dalteparin,,Enoxaparin,Nadroparin,Tinzaparin,Reviparine, Ardeparin, Pamparin
8.Synthetic heparin derivativesMOA? Mediate inhibition of Factor Xa via AT-III
9.Synthetic heparin derivativesFondaparinux? t1/2: 17-21 hr, Approved for Px after hip/knee Sx, Rx of DVT& PE, C/I in CRF
10.Idraparinux? t1/2: 5-6 days
11.Other Parenteral Anti-coagulants? •Lepirudin•Bivalirudin•Argatroban•Danaparoid•Drotecoginalfa
12.PreparationsWithout fibrin specificity? Streptokinase, Anistreplase
13.PreparationsWith fibrin specificity? Alteplase, Reteplase, Tenecteplase
14.Clopidogrel? • Recent MI or stroke • Peripheral arterial disease • Acute coronary syndrome
15.GpIIb/IIIa inhibitorsParenteral? Abciximab, Eptifibatide, Tirofiban, Lamifiban
16.GpIIb/IIIa inhibitorsOral? Xemilofiban, Orbofiban, Sibrafiban, Roxifiban
17.ACE inhibitors? Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril,Perindopril, Ramipril, Fosinopril
18.Angiotensin(AT1receptor)blockers? Losartan,Candesartan, Irbesartan, Valsartan, Telmisartan
19.Calcium channel blockers? Verapamil, Diltiazem,Nifedipine, Felodipine, Amlodipine, Nitrendipine,Lacidipine.
20.? Adrenergic blockers? Propranolol, Metaprolol,Atenolol.
21.? + ? Adrenergic blockers? Labetalol, Carvedilol.
23.Centralsympatholytics(presynaptic?2rec.agonists)? Clonidine, Methyldopa.
24.VasodilatorsArteriolar? Hydralazine, Minoxidil, Diazoxide
25.VasodilatorsArteriolar+venous? Sodium nitroprusside
26.Sod. Nitroprusside? Contraindicated in eclampsia.
27.Dihydropyridine CCBs? Discontinuebeforelabourastheyweakenuterine contractions.
28.Cardioselective? blockers and those with ISA? Atenolol, Metoprolol, Pindolol, Acebutolol: maybe used if no other choice.
29.Pump failureFurosemide? Indicated if pulmonary wedgepressure is > 20 mm Hg.
30.Pump failureVasodilators? IV GTN or nitroprusside
31.Pump failureInotropic agents? Dopamine or dobutamine(rarely digoxin if AF present)
32.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapyNausea, vomiting? • 5HT3 receptor antagonists : ondansetron• Substance P Antagonist / NK 1 Receptor antagonist : aprepitant
33.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapyNeutropenia? •Filgrastim [G-CSF] •Sargramostim [GM-CSF]
34.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapyAnemia? Erythropoeitin [EPO]
35.Management of toxicity of cancer chemotherapy Hyperuricemia? • Allopurinol •Rasburicase
36.Veno-occlusive disease of liver due to busulphan, BCNU? Defibrotide
37.Cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin? •Dexrazoxane•ACE inhibitors
38.Hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide? •Mesna•N-acetyl cysteine irrigation•Saline irrigation
39.Cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity? Amifostine
40.Pain due to vinblastine extravasation? •Hyaluronidase• Heat
41.Ototoxicity due to carboplatin? Thiosulfate
42.Mechlorethamineextravastion? •Sterile isotonic thiosulfate•Ice
43.Diagnostic uses of MAbPhysiological uses? 1. Urine pregnancy tests 2. Glucometer 3. Salmonella contamination of milk
44.Diagnostic uses of MAbPathological uses? 1. Igorvomab?Ca ovary 2. Votumab?Ca colon 3. Sulemab? Infections
45.Discovery of modern AMAsDomagk? Prontosil (sulfonamide).
46.Discovery of modern AMAsFleming? Penicillin G (Penicilliumnotatum).
47.Discovery of modern AMAsWaksman? Streptomycin (Actinomyces).
48.Range of Antimicrobial activityNarrow? Penicillin G
49.Range of Antimicrobial activityBroad? Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol
50.Type of actionStatic? Inhibitmicrobialgrowthe.g.Tetracyclines, chloramphenicol
51.Type of action Cidal? Kill microbes e.g. Penicillin G
52.Based on chemical structureNatural? Penicillin G
53.Based on chemical structureSemi-synthetic? Ampicillin
54.Based on chemical structureSynthetic? Ciprofloxacin
55.Organism against which it is activeAntibacterial? Penicillin G
56.Organism against which it is activeAntifungal? clotrimazole
57.Organism against which it is activeAntiviral? Zidovudine
58.Organism against which it is activeAntiprotozoal? Chloroquine
59.Organism against which it is activeAntihelminthic? Albendazole
60.Mechanism of actionInhibit of cell wall synthesis? Penicillin G
61.Mechanism of actionAct on cell membrane? Bacitracin, polymyxin
62.Mechanism of actionInhibit protein synthesis? Tetracycline
63.Mechanism of actionInhibit DNA synthesis? Acyclovir
64.Mechanism of actionAffect nucleic acid metabolism? Rifampicin
65.Mechanism of actionInhibit metabolic pathways? Sulfonamide
66.Problems associated with use of AMAsToxicityLocal? acidity
67.Problems associated with use of AMAs ToxicitySystemic? damage to kidney, liver.
68.Problems associated with use of AMAs ToxicityNatural? Penicillin G & Gram negative bacteria
69.Properties of H1 receptor antagonists maximum anti-cholinergic effect? Promethazine
70.Local anesthetic effect? Promethazine
71.CYP450 Enzyme inhibition? Terfenadine
72.Clinical uses of ?-blockers SVT? Esmolol
73.PAF antagonism? Rupatadine
75.ICAM-1 down regulator? Azelastine
76. Allergic reactions? Doxepin &Rupatadine for chronic urticarial
77. Allergic reactions?Olopatadine for allergic conjunctivitis.
78. Motion sickness? Meclizine
79. Motion sickness? Promethazine
80. Vertigo? Cinnarizine
81. Nausea, vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy? Promethazine
82. Anxiolytic? Hydroxyzine
83. Early Parkinson’s disease / drug induced PD? Diphenhydramine
84. A gents to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.TreatmentOralOral : Valgancilovir IV : Ganciclovir, Cidofair, foscarnet Intraocular : Ganciclovir
85. Prophylaxis? Valganciclovir, Ganciclovir
86. Current Rx for chronic HBV? • Lamivudine • IFN-a •Adefovirdipivoxil.
87. Inhibitors of HBV DNA polymerase Nucleoside RTI? •Entecavir•Clevudine•Telbivudine•Emtricitabine.
88. Hepatitis B vaccination-Accelerated schedule? 0, 7 & 21-30 days; booster after 1 year.
89. Current Rx for acute HCV? Parenteral IFN-a2b
90. Current Rx for chronic HCV? oral Ribavirin +Parenteral PegIFN-a.
91. Inhibitors of HCV polymerase? •Viramidine (Taribavirin) •Valopicitabine (RNA dependent RNA polymerase).
92. Non-structural (NS 3/4) HCV protease inhibitors? •Bocepravir•Telapravir.
93. INFLUENZA M2 ion channel inhibitors? • Amantadine •Rimantadine.
94. INFLUENZA Neuraminidase inhibitors? •Oseltamivir•Zanamivir.
95. Hypertension? ?1 blockers -Prazocin / Terazocin / Doxazocin theyhave favorable effect on lipids/ glucose / urine acidmetabolism
96. Raynauds phenomenon? Prazocin / Phenoxybenzamine / Phenolamine can beused as 2nd agents.
97. Local vasoconstrictor excess? If mistakenly high dose of ? agonists are administered, to relieve the vasospasm phentolamineinfiltrated into the ischemic tissue
98. Clinical uses of ?-blockers Hypertension? First line (?1 sele pref.)
99. Clinical uses of ?-blockers Prophylaxis of anythmiafoll. MI? Metoprolol
100. Clinical uses of ?-blockers SVT? Esmolol
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