One Liner (20/05/2019)
Published on May 20, 2019, 10 a.m.

51, End product of aerobic Glycolysis ? Pyruvate

52. Troponins are marker for ?  Myocardial infarction

53. Prostaglandins are derived from ? Arachidonic acid

54. Urine turns dark on exposure to air in ? Alkaptonuria

55 Enzyme deficient in Alkaptonuria ? Homogentisate oxidase

56. Superoxide dismutase contains which trace element ? Copper

ta Location of Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-l ? Mitochondria

58. End product of pyrimidine metabolism ? Beta-alanine, ammonia

59. End produci of purine metabolism in primates ? Uric acid

60 Function of DNA polymerase I Il in replication ?  Synthesize a DNA strand

61. MC type of RNA?  rRNA

62 Synthesis of creatinine occur in which organ ? Kidney

63. Which structure of protein never denaiures ? Primary

64. ATP consumed in urea cycle ? 3

65 Rate limiting step in heme synthesis ? ALA synthase

66, Daily production of bile ? 500 ml

67 Liver can't use ketone bodies as they don i have whicir enzyme ? Thiophorase

68. Rate limiting step in ketone body synihesis ? HMG CoA synthase

69 Fatty acid oxidation occurs in ? Mitochondria

70. Rate limiting step in fatty acid synthesis ? Acetyl CoA carboxylase

71. MC type of RNA ? Ribosomal (rRNA)

72 SNURPs are ? Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein

73. Pellagra is due to ? Deficiency of tryptophan/niacin

74 Limiting amino acid in maize ? Tryptophan

75. Action of Chaperone ? Hsp 70 family of chaperones bind with hydrophobic amino acid

76. Which nitrogenous base is NOT seen in RNA ? Thymine

77. Number of ATPs produced in anaerobic glycolysis ? 2

78. Keshan disease is due io deficiency of ? Selenium

79. Arginine combines with which amino acid ? Guanidine

80. Function of clathrin ? Receptor mediated endocytosis

81. Fuhc-tion :of chapeione ? Protein folding

82. Example of group C chromosome ? x,6-12

83. Mousy odour of urine is found in ? Phenylketonuria

84. Exercise induced myoglobinuria may be seen in which glycogen storage disease?  McArdle's disease (due to deficiency of muscle phosphorylase)

85. Which amino acid is involved in glycosylation of hemoglobin (HbA1c) ? Valine

86. Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis ? HMG CoA REDUCTASE

87. Action of stop codon ? Act as terminator codon

BB. BH4 (dihydro-biopterin) can be used for managing defects of which amino acid ? Phenylalanine

89. Which subtype of LDH is present in heart ? LDH1

90. Specific cardiac markers ? Troponins

91 . RNA is analyzed by ? Reyerse trancriptase polymerase chain

reaction.

92. Free radical damage is the mechanism of damage of DNA by ? lonizing radiation

93 Aspartic acid is which class amino acid ? Acidic

94. Amino acid present in hemoglobin ? Histidine

95. Aspartic acid is a common amino acid between which 2 cycles ? Urea cycle & Krebs cycle

96.' Deficiency of fructokinase leads to ? Essential fructosuria

97. Example of oxidase-reducatse class enzyme ? Peroxidase

98. Anti-codons are present on ? t-RNA

99. Vitamin K exists in how many forms ? 3

100. Number of stop codons ? 3

1. Purkinje fibers?• Largest diameter • Highest Conduction velocity

2. pH of venous blood normally is? 7.35

3. The three main systems used as defense against changes in hydrogen ion concentrations? 1) Buffer system of blood 2) Lungs 3) Kidneys (most Powerful buffers,) slow to act.zzHenderson – Hasselbalch equation pk is dissociation constant (varies for different buffer systems)? pH = pK + log(HCO 3" ?" )/(0.03 x Pco2)

4. The most important extracellular buffer is? Bicarbonate buffer system

5. C type natriuretic peptide (CNP)? Brain

6. The most important intracellular buffer is? Proteins

7. Anion Gap? (Na++K+) – (HCO3 - + Cl-)

8. Anion Gap? Normal range 8-16 meq/lt. Consists of anionic proteins  HPO42- , SO42- Organic acids

9. Buffering power of a system is greatest when? pH is equal to pK (dissociation constant)

10.Davenport diagram is used to determine? The type and severity of acidosis or alkalosis.

11.Siggard Anderson Nomogram?Is used to plot acid – base characteristics of arterial blood, is helpful in clinical situations.

12.Isohydric principle?Whenever any condition causes a change in H+ concentration, all the buffer systems of the body change at the same time.

13.Acidification of urine occurs in? (i) PCT, DCT (ii) Collecting ducts

14.Kidneys regulate hydrogen ion concentration? By increasing or decreasing bicarbonate ion concentration.

15.There is limited ability of tubular epithelium to secrete hydrogen ions in the collecting ducts? This corresponds to limiting pH of 4.5 in urine

16.One respiratory unit is composed of? i) Respiratory bronchiole ii) Alveolar ducts and iii) Alveoli

17.The volume from the terminal bronchiole to the alveolus? Acinus vol. is 2500ml.

18.Total number of alveoli? 3,00,000

19.Total surface area of alveolar wall? Approx. 85m2

20.The alveoli communicate with each other by? Pores of kohn.

21.Largest amount of smooth muscle is present in? Terminal bronchioles

22.b2 adrenergic receptors predominate in bronchi and bronchioles? Causes bronchodilation and decreased bronchial secretion

23.Airway obstruction in smokers? Goblet cells are crores in number

24.Primary site for gas exchange? Type I epithelial cell

25.Surfactant (Dipalmitoyl lecithin) is secreted by? Type II cells, granular pneumocytes

26.Cells present through out lungs and act as chemoreceptors?Type III epithelial cell or brush cells

27.Type I: Type II cells ratio? 1 : 1

28.In response to injury to Type I cell? Type II cell differentiates into Type I cell

29.At rest, human breathes? 12-15 times/ minute

30.Amount of air inspired and expired is? 500 ml air per breath or 6-8 L/min

31.The parts of inner ear concerned with Equilibrium? 1. Semicircular canals 2. Utricle       3. Saccule

32.Crista ampullaris? Receptor structure located in ampula of each membranous canal (scc)

33.Crist a? Hair cells and sustentacular cells super mounted by a gelatinous partition (cupula)

34.Otoliths / Otoconia / Ear dust? Are crystals of calcium carbonate embedded in otolithic membrane in macula.

35.Semicircular canal? Responds to Angular acceleration and deceleration

36.Utricle? Responds to Horizontal acceleration

37.Saccule? Responds to vertical Acceleration

38.Linear acceleration does not stimulate cristae? As it does not displace cupula.

39.Macula? Discharge toxically because of pull of gravity on otolith. Involved in reflex righting of head.

40.Direction of eye movement during nystagmus? Identified by direction of the quick

   component. Interconnects 3 pair of motor nuclei III, IV and VI.

41.Medial longitudinal fasciculus?Associated with vestibular directed head and eye movement coordination.

42.The parts of ear concerned with hearing? 1. External ear 2. Middle ear 3. Cochlea of inner ear

43.Perilymph?Present in cochlea in scala vestibuli, scala tympani and bony labyrinth formed mainly from plasma.

44.Endolymph?Present in Scala media and membranous labyrinth. Formed by stria vascularis has high concentration of K+ Low concentration of Na+

45.Scala vestibuli and scala tympani? Communicate with each other through Helicotrema

46.Microglial cells are derived from? Bone marrow

47.Local mechanisms maintaining high blood flow to exercising muscles? Accumulation of K+ and vasodilator metabolite

48.Starling’s law of heart?States that the ‘Force of contraction is proportional to the initial length of cardiac muscle fiber that is, the end diastolic volume.

49.Frank-Starling curve? Depicts the relation between ventricular stroke volume and end diastolic volume

50.O2 consumption by heart? Depends on 1) Intramyocardial Tension 2) Contractile state of myocardium 3) Heart rate 4) Ventricular work per beat

51.Heterometric regulation of C.O.?Changes in cardiac muscle fiber length

52.Homometric regulation? Changes in Contractility independent of length

53.O2 consumption of the beating heart? 9ml/100g/min

54.Basal O2 consumption (heart stopped artificially maintaining the circulation)? At rest 2ml/100g/min

55.Ventricular work / beat correlates with? O2 consumption of heart

56.The speed of conduction? Is directly

57.Myelinated fiber (with 300 membrane layers)? Resistance is increased by a 300 & capacitance is decrease that of a single membrane

58.Cells that produce myelin? Outside CNS – Schwann cells. In the CNS – Oligodendro- gliocytes.

59.Diabetes Mellitus?Neuropathy caused by demyelination of peripheral axons.

60.Multiple Sclerosis?Patchy destruction of myelin sheath in CNS.

61.Blood brain barrier is formed by the? Astrocytes.

62.Neurotrophins? Proteins necessary for survival and growth of neurons.

63.Non-fluent aphasia? Lesion is in Broca’s area

64.Nerve growth factor was the first neurotrophin to be identified?It is a protein growth factor needed for growth and maintenance of sympathetic and some sensory neurons.

65.Scavenger cells of CNS are? Microglial cells

66.Acalculia? Selective impairment of mathematical ability due to frontal

67.Conditioning of visceral reflexes? Biofeedback responses is called – operant conditioning Animal is taught to perform some task in order to obtain a reward or avoid punishment.

68.Memory transfer occurs in the anterior portion of corpus callosum? Includes mainly short term an memory

69.Working memory? Involues memory consolidation

70.Long term memory Plasticity? Capacity for change associated with learning.

71.Astereognosis? Inability to identify objects by feeling them. Lesion is in the representational hemisphere

72.Agnosia? Inability to recognize objects by a particular sensory modality even though the sensory modality itself is intact.

73.Apraxia? Lesions in primary sensory area represents the failure of patients with frontal or parietal lobe lesions to perform complex movements despite retention of sensation and the ability to make simple movement.

74.Strangeness and familiarity? Related to temporal lobe function.

75.Dejavu phenomenon? An inappropriate feeling of familiarity with new events or new  surrounding

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