51, End product of aerobic Glycolysis ? Pyruvate
52. Troponins are marker for ? Myocardial infarction
53. Prostaglandins are derived from ? Arachidonic acid
54. Urine turns dark on exposure to air in ? Alkaptonuria
55 Enzyme deficient in Alkaptonuria ? Homogentisate oxidase
56. Superoxide dismutase contains which trace element ? Copper
ta Location of Carbamoyl phosphate synthase-l ? Mitochondria
58. End product of pyrimidine metabolism ? Beta-alanine, ammonia
59. End produci of purine metabolism in primates ? Uric acid
60 Function of DNA polymerase I Il in replication ? Synthesize a DNA strand
61. MC type of RNA? rRNA
62 Synthesis of creatinine occur in which organ ? Kidney
63. Which structure of protein never denaiures ? Primary
64. ATP consumed in urea cycle ? 3
65 Rate limiting step in heme synthesis ? ALA synthase
66, Daily production of bile ? 500 ml
67 Liver can't use ketone bodies as they don i have whicir enzyme ? Thiophorase
68. Rate limiting step in ketone body synihesis ? HMG CoA synthase
69 Fatty acid oxidation occurs in ? Mitochondria
70. Rate limiting step in fatty acid synthesis ? Acetyl CoA carboxylase
71. MC type of RNA ? Ribosomal (rRNA)
72 SNURPs are ? Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein
73. Pellagra is due to ? Deficiency of tryptophan/niacin
74 Limiting amino acid in maize ? Tryptophan
75. Action of Chaperone ? Hsp 70 family of chaperones bind with hydrophobic amino acid
76. Which nitrogenous base is NOT seen in RNA ? Thymine
77. Number of ATPs produced in anaerobic glycolysis ? 2
78. Keshan disease is due io deficiency of ? Selenium
79. Arginine combines with which amino acid ? Guanidine
80. Function of clathrin ? Receptor mediated endocytosis
81. Fuhc-tion :of chapeione ? Protein folding
82. Example of group C chromosome ? x,6-12
83. Mousy odour of urine is found in ? Phenylketonuria
84. Exercise induced myoglobinuria may be seen in which glycogen storage disease? McArdle's disease (due to deficiency of muscle phosphorylase)
85. Which amino acid is involved in glycosylation of hemoglobin (HbA1c) ? Valine
86. Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis ? HMG CoA REDUCTASE
87. Action of stop codon ? Act as terminator codon
BB. BH4 (dihydro-biopterin) can be used for managing defects of which amino acid ? Phenylalanine
89. Which subtype of LDH is present in heart ? LDH1
90. Specific cardiac markers ? Troponins
91 . RNA is analyzed by ? Reyerse trancriptase polymerase chain
92. Free radical damage is the mechanism of damage of DNA by ? lonizing radiation
93 Aspartic acid is which class amino acid ? Acidic
94. Amino acid present in hemoglobin ? Histidine
95. Aspartic acid is a common amino acid between which 2 cycles ? Urea cycle & Krebs cycle
96.' Deficiency of fructokinase leads to ? Essential fructosuria
97. Example of oxidase-reducatse class enzyme ? Peroxidase
98. Anti-codons are present on ? t-RNA
99. Vitamin K exists in how many forms ? 3
100. Number of stop codons ? 3
1. Purkinje fibers?• Largest diameter • Highest Conduction velocity
2. pH of venous blood normally is? 7.35
3. The three main systems used as defense against changes in hydrogen ion concentrations? 1) Buffer system of blood 2) Lungs 3) Kidneys (most Powerful buffers,) slow to act.zzHenderson – Hasselbalch equation pk is dissociation constant (varies for different buffer systems)? pH = pK + log(HCO 3" ?" )/(0.03 x Pco2)
4. The most important extracellular buffer is? Bicarbonate buffer system
5. C type natriuretic peptide (CNP)? Brain
6. The most important intracellular buffer is? Proteins
7. Anion Gap? (Na++K+) – (HCO3 - + Cl-)
8. Anion Gap? Normal range 8-16 meq/lt. Consists of anionic proteins HPO42- , SO42- Organic acids
9. Buffering power of a system is greatest when? pH is equal to pK (dissociation constant)
10.Davenport diagram is used to determine? The type and severity of acidosis or alkalosis.
11.Siggard Anderson Nomogram?Is used to plot acid – base characteristics of arterial blood, is helpful in clinical situations.
12.Isohydric principle?Whenever any condition causes a change in H+ concentration, all the buffer systems of the body change at the same time.
13.Acidification of urine occurs in? (i) PCT, DCT (ii) Collecting ducts
14.Kidneys regulate hydrogen ion concentration? By increasing or decreasing bicarbonate ion concentration.
15.There is limited ability of tubular epithelium to secrete hydrogen ions in the collecting ducts? This corresponds to limiting pH of 4.5 in urine
16.One respiratory unit is composed of? i) Respiratory bronchiole ii) Alveolar ducts and iii) Alveoli
17.The volume from the terminal bronchiole to the alveolus? Acinus vol. is 2500ml.
18.Total number of alveoli? 3,00,000
19.Total surface area of alveolar wall? Approx. 85m2
20.The alveoli communicate with each other by? Pores of kohn.
21.Largest amount of smooth muscle is present in? Terminal bronchioles
22.b2 adrenergic receptors predominate in bronchi and bronchioles? Causes bronchodilation and decreased bronchial secretion
23.Airway obstruction in smokers? Goblet cells are crores in number
24.Primary site for gas exchange? Type I epithelial cell
25.Surfactant (Dipalmitoyl lecithin) is secreted by? Type II cells, granular pneumocytes
26.Cells present through out lungs and act as chemoreceptors?Type III epithelial cell or brush cells
27.Type I: Type II cells ratio? 1 : 1
28.In response to injury to Type I cell? Type II cell differentiates into Type I cell
29.At rest, human breathes? 12-15 times/ minute
30.Amount of air inspired and expired is? 500 ml air per breath or 6-8 L/min
31.The parts of inner ear concerned with Equilibrium? 1. Semicircular canals 2. Utricle 3. Saccule
32.Crista ampullaris? Receptor structure located in ampula of each membranous canal (scc)
33.Crist a? Hair cells and sustentacular cells super mounted by a gelatinous partition (cupula)
34.Otoliths / Otoconia / Ear dust? Are crystals of calcium carbonate embedded in otolithic membrane in macula.
35.Semicircular canal? Responds to Angular acceleration and deceleration
36.Utricle? Responds to Horizontal acceleration
37.Saccule? Responds to vertical Acceleration
38.Linear acceleration does not stimulate cristae? As it does not displace cupula.
39.Macula? Discharge toxically because of pull of gravity on otolith. Involved in reflex righting of head.
40.Direction of eye movement during nystagmus? Identified by direction of the quick
component. Interconnects 3 pair of motor nuclei III, IV and VI.
41.Medial longitudinal fasciculus?Associated with vestibular directed head and eye movement coordination.
42.The parts of ear concerned with hearing? 1. External ear 2. Middle ear 3. Cochlea of inner ear
43.Perilymph?Present in cochlea in scala vestibuli, scala tympani and bony labyrinth formed mainly from plasma.
44.Endolymph?Present in Scala media and membranous labyrinth. Formed by stria vascularis has high concentration of K+ Low concentration of Na+
45.Scala vestibuli and scala tympani? Communicate with each other through Helicotrema
46.Microglial cells are derived from? Bone marrow
47.Local mechanisms maintaining high blood flow to exercising muscles? Accumulation of K+ and vasodilator metabolite
48.Starling’s law of heart?States that the ‘Force of contraction is proportional to the initial length of cardiac muscle fiber that is, the end diastolic volume.
49.Frank-Starling curve? Depicts the relation between ventricular stroke volume and end diastolic volume
50.O2 consumption by heart? Depends on 1) Intramyocardial Tension 2) Contractile state of myocardium 3) Heart rate 4) Ventricular work per beat
51.Heterometric regulation of C.O.?Changes in cardiac muscle fiber length
52.Homometric regulation? Changes in Contractility independent of length
53.O2 consumption of the beating heart? 9ml/100g/min
54.Basal O2 consumption (heart stopped artificially maintaining the circulation)? At rest 2ml/100g/min
55.Ventricular work / beat correlates with? O2 consumption of heart
56.The speed of conduction? Is directly
57.Myelinated fiber (with 300 membrane layers)? Resistance is increased by a 300 & capacitance is decrease that of a single membrane
58.Cells that produce myelin? Outside CNS – Schwann cells. In the CNS – Oligodendro- gliocytes.
59.Diabetes Mellitus?Neuropathy caused by demyelination of peripheral axons.
60.Multiple Sclerosis?Patchy destruction of myelin sheath in CNS.
61.Blood brain barrier is formed by the? Astrocytes.
62.Neurotrophins? Proteins necessary for survival and growth of neurons.
63.Non-fluent aphasia? Lesion is in Broca’s area
64.Nerve growth factor was the first neurotrophin to be identified?It is a protein growth factor needed for growth and maintenance of sympathetic and some sensory neurons.
65.Scavenger cells of CNS are? Microglial cells
66.Acalculia? Selective impairment of mathematical ability due to frontal
67.Conditioning of visceral reflexes? Biofeedback responses is called – operant conditioning Animal is taught to perform some task in order to obtain a reward or avoid punishment.
68.Memory transfer occurs in the anterior portion of corpus callosum? Includes mainly short term an memory
69.Working memory? Involues memory consolidation
70.Long term memory Plasticity? Capacity for change associated with learning.
71.Astereognosis? Inability to identify objects by feeling them. Lesion is in the representational hemisphere
72.Agnosia? Inability to recognize objects by a particular sensory modality even though the sensory modality itself is intact.
73.Apraxia? Lesions in primary sensory area represents the failure of patients with frontal or parietal lobe lesions to perform complex movements despite retention of sensation and the ability to make simple movement.
74.Strangeness and familiarity? Related to temporal lobe function.
75.Dejavu phenomenon? An inappropriate feeling of familiarity with new events or new surrounding
THE BEST WEB-APP APP TO CRACK VARIOUS COMPETITIVE EXAMS FOR FREE
- DMA-TestHub: with 35.000 MCQs (Mocks/subject wise & chapter wise) + Image based questions + Review materials + apprehended images bank & Aids (FREE)
- Register @: www.dma-testhub.com (Choose one appropriate exam)
- Download Testhub app from googleplay & appstore
- Visit us: www.dma-study.com
You can get the knowledge pack as a notification on your mobile by downloading our App.Only after registration you can use the App. Register here:. www.dma-testhub.com and follow the instructions sent to your mail.
📢GooglePlay - https://play.google.com/store/...
JOIN OUR FACEBOOK COMMUNITY:
📢MCI/FMGE - https://www.facebook.com/group...
FOLLOW US ON YOUTUBE FOR MEDICAL VIDEOS:
JOIN OUR INSTAGRAM COMMUNITY: