101.Carbon dioxide (in blood) is mainly transported in which form ? Bicarbonate
102. Oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve is Sigmoid, shaped because ? Binding of one oxygen molecule increases the affinity of binding to other oxygen molecule
103. Fall in SpO, leads to shift of oxygen dissociation curug towards which side ? Right
104. Value for normal GFR ? 125 ml/min
105. Site of action of aldosterone ? Collecting duct
106. Broca's area is present in which gyrus ? lnferior frontal gYrus
107. Which cells produce HCI in stomach ? Oxyntic/ parietal cells
108. pO, pressure at sea level ? 160
109 Resting membrane potential of RBC ? - 12 mV
110. RMP of rods ? -40 mV
111 Cold stress is seen in children at what temperature ? 36 degree Celsius
112. Adrenal contains which vitamin in maximum quantity ? Vitamin C
113. Most common type of hYPoxia ? Hypoxic hypoxia
1i4. t hemoglobin molecule binds with how many oxygen molecules ? 4
115. lnhibin has inhibitory effect on which hormone ? FSH
116 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis of ? Steroid
117 Respiratory quotient of brain ? 0.97 tu A.99
118. Mannitol is ? Osmotic diuretic
'119. A(erial pressure is reduced in pressure diuresis by lowering ? Blood volume
120. Site of action of aldosterone ? Collecting duct & distal collecting tubule
121 . MINIMUM strength of stimulus required to produce action potential is known as ? Rheobase
122. Type of SGLT in kidneY ? SGLT 1
Proprioception is canied bY ? Dorsal column/ Posterior column
124, Lateral spinothalamic tract carries which sensation ? Temperature and Pain
125" Local anesthesia afiects which nerve fibers mainly ? A-delta
126. Horrnone activity is more of which hormone in REM sleep A ? cetylcholine
127. Dreaming is commoner in which phase of sleep ? REM
128. Muscle tone is absent in all skeletal muscle in REM sleep excepi ? Extraocular and facial muscles
129. Frequency of first heart sound ? 2545 Hz
130. Frequency of second heart sound ? 50 Hz
131 Golgi tendon organ is innervated by which nerve fibers ? tb
132. Receptor for stretch ? Muscle spindle
133. Difference between pressure in alveoli and intrapleural pressure is known as ? TranspuImonary Pressure
134. Golgi tendon organ senses ? Muscle tension
1. Aphasia? Abnormality of language function that is not due to defect of vision or hearing or to motor paralysis.
2. Fluent aphasia? Lesion is in Wernicke’s auditory cortex.
3. Anomic aphasia? Difficulty in Understanding written language or pictures. Lesion is in angular gyrus without affecting Wernicke’s or Broca’s area
4. Stuttering? Associated with right cerebral dominance and widespread over activity in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.
5. Alzheimer’s disease? Severe loss of cholinergic neurons in the Nucleus basalis of Mynert and related nucler that project to hippocampus, any golala and all of the neocortex
6. Sensory information is projected from thalamus to the cortex? (i) Somatic sensory area in the post central gyrus (ii) Somatic sensory area in the sylvian fissure
7. In the somatic sensory area I corresponding to Broadman cortical areas 1,2,3? Here the fibres are arranged in the order–Legs on top of post-central gyrus and head at the foot of the gyrus.
8. Somatic Sensory area I The size of the area of the body represented in the cortex is directly proportional to the No. of specialized sensory receptors in each peripheral area of the body. Eg. lips – large area –due to great no. of nerve endings? (i) Important for position sense. (ii) Ability to Discriminate size and shape (iii) This area projects also to posterior parietal cortex (iv) Lesion of this area produces abnormalities of spatial orientation on contralateral side of the body
9. Function of parietal association cortex? Relationship of the body to extapersonal space. For eg. This part of cortex on one side helps to coordinate hand and eye movements on contralateral side.
10. Proprioception and fine touch?Most affected in cortical lesions
11 Thalamic syndrome? nuclei, caused by obstruction of the thalamogeniculate branch of posterior cerebral artery. Attacks of prolonged, severe unpleasant pain that are spontaneous, occur to trivial stimuli
12. Thalamus is the sensory relay?For all types of sensations (except olfactory sensation.)
13. The nuclei of thalamus that projects to all parts of neocortex are? Midline nuclei
14. Touch receptors are most numerous in the? Skin of fingers and lips
15. Position sense -Static and dynamic sense - Pacinian corpuscles - Muscle spindle? Depends on impulses from sense organs in and around the joints The organs involved are slowly adapting spray endings.
and C fibers that respond to absolute temperature not temp gradient across the skin. As these sense organs are located subepithelially, it is temperature of subcutaneous tissue that determines the response.C – tissue damage occurs. Sensation of pain as nociceptive thermoreceptors become active? Are naked nerve endings of AC About 45 C Warm receptors – 30 - 45C and cease firing below 10-3016. Temperature sense organs Cold receptors respond from 18
17. The sense organs for pain?Are the naked nerve endings found in almost every tissue of the body
18. Chemical mediators of pain that stimulate the nerve endings?(1) ATP (2) Capsaicin (3) Bradykinin (4) Serotonin (5) Histamine (6) K+ (7) Ach proteolytic enzyme
19. Muscle pain?Is due to inadequate blood supply and accumulation of Lewis ‘P’ factor (K+).
20. Pain sensitive intracranial Structure? Pial vessels
21. Allodynia? Is pain felt on normally innocuous tactile or thermal stimulus
22. Causalgia? A continuous burning pain that sometimes develops following a traumatic peripheral injury and may continue after healing is complete and no apparent peripheral damage remains.
hair growth.23. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy? Skin affected is thin, shiny and
24. Measures used for relieving Intractable pain? (i) Chronic stimulation of dorsal column with implanted electrodes (ii) Prefrontal Lobectomy (iii) Cingulate Gyrectomy (iv) Anterolateral cordotomy
- endorphin, Enkephalins, Dynorphins.25. Endogenous opioids?
26. Light?Causes changes of 11 cis retinene1 to all trans isomer, This alters configuration of Rhodopsin.
27. Glutamine? Neurotransmitters believed to be release from photoreceptor in response to light.
28. Acetylcholine, a synaptic transmitter in the retina, secreted by only? Amacrine cells.
29. Dopamine a synaptic transmitter in the retina? Secreted by cells between inner nuclear and inner plexiform layer. Helps during dark enlarging the receptive fields of the photoreceptors.
30. Electroretinogram (ERG)? Study of the electrical activity of the eye by recording fluctuations in the potential difference between and electrode on the cornea and another on scalp.
31. Electroretinogram a, b, and c waves?Three wave sequences formed due to light. Rapid a & b waves due to electrical activity in retina, slow c wave generated in pigment epithelium. Generated in pigment epithelium
32. Lateral geniculate nucleus Layers II, III, V? Receive signal from lateral half of ipsilateral retina.
33. Layer I, IV, VI? Receive signals from medial half of contralateral retina.
34. Layer I, II? Magnocellular layer
35. Layer III through VI? Parvocellular layer
36. V8 area?Uniquely concerned with COLOR VISION
37. V1 area? Primary visual cortex, receives input from lateral geniculate nucleus. Processes stimulus in terms of orientation, edges, motions, and recognition of shape, forms, faces
38. Primary Colors are ? Red (723-647 nm) Green (575-492 nm) Blue (492-450 nm)
39. Rhod opsin has peak sensitivity to light at? 505 nm
40. Complementary colour? Colour when mixed with any color produces a sensation of white.
41. Tests used for detecting color blindness? 1. Yarn-Matching Test 2. Ishihara Charts 3. Edridge Green Lantern 4. Holmgren’s wool
20 minutes42. Dark Adaptation? Maximal time
43. Early portion? Cone adaptation
44. Later portion? Rod adaptation
5mins 45. Light Adaptation? Maximal time taken
46. When apneustic center signal is strong? Depth of respiration increases
47. Depth of inspiration? increase after vagotomy
48. Major factor influencing ventilation? Arterial Pco2
49. Breaking point Breaking point can be delayed by? The point at which breathing can no longer be voluntarily inhibited
Po2 arterial Pco2 and 50. Breaking point Breaking point can be delayed by? Due to
51. Breaking point Breaking point can be delayed by? 1) Breathing 100% O2. 2) Hyperventilating
52. Primary stimulus for central chemoreceptor? Increased H+
53. The neurotransmitter involved in bronchial dilatation, present in lungs? Vasoactive intestinal peptide
54. The neurotransmitter involved in broncho- constriction, present in lungs? Acetylcholine, Substance P, Histamine
55. Mouth to mouth respiration provides concentration of oxygen of? 16 %
56. Definitive cyanosis appears when the arterial blood contains? More than 5gm% of deoxygenated Hb
57. Factors causing Pulmonary Vasoconstriction? Endothelin Serotonin Thromboxane A2 Epinephrine, Norepinephrine Angiotensin II
58. Anatomic dead space is defined as?The volume of air in the conducting airways where gas exchanges does not occur
59. Physiologic dead space is defined as? The volume of gas in each breath that does not participate in gas exchange. It is due to anatomical dead space + the alveolar dead space i.e. alveoli that are ventilated, but not perfused and alveoli that are over ventilated relative to the amount of perfusion
60. In health normal anatomical dead space is? 150 ml
61. In healthy normal individuals, the anatomical and physiological dead space are nearly identical? Because all alveoli are functional in normal lung.
This ratio varies in various parts of lung as a result of effect of gravity High ratio at the apices. 0.8
62. Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio?
63. When ventilation exceeds perfusion, V > 1 (3.5 at apex)? Normal in top of the lung
64. When perfusion exceeds ventilation V < 1 (0.6 at base)? Normal in base of the lung
65. In normal individuals on room air the A – a (alveolar- arterial) pressure gradient for O2 is less than 15 mmHg? Pressure gradient for O2
66. Four mechanisms of hypoxemia? a) Anatomical Shunt b) V/Q mismatching c) Hypoventilation d) Physiological shunt
67. Two mechanisms of Hypercarbia? a) Increase in dead Space b) Hypoventilation
68. Inulin clearance gives an accurate estimation of the GFR? Is filtered but neither secreted nor reabsorbed Is biologically inert. But monitoring of blood levels is difficult
69. Creatinine clearance? Endogenous Substance Filtered and secreted Fairly accurate measurement of GFR Most widely used in clinical practice
70. Filtration Fraction?GFR/(Renal Plasma flow)= 0.16-0.2
71. Descending thin limb of loop of Henle? Permeable to Water
72. Ascending thin limb of loop of Henle? NaCl reabsorbed, urea diffuses into tubular lumen
73. Thick ascending limb of loop of Henle? Active reabsorption + of Na & impermeable to water
74. Distal tubule and cortical collecting duct Medullary collecting duct? Active reabsorption of NaCl In presence of ADH, reabsorbs water
75. Distal tubule and cortical collecting duct Medullary collecting duct? Active reabsorptionof NaCI Reabsorption of some amount of water, urea diffuses into the duct
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