One Liner (18/05/2019)
Published on May 18, 2019, 11:49 a.m.

101.Carbon dioxide (in blood) is mainly transported in which form ? Bicarbonate

102. Oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve is Sigmoid, shaped because ? Binding of one oxygen molecule increases the affinity of binding to other oxygen molecule

103. Fall in SpO, leads to shift of oxygen dissociation curug towards which side ? Right

104. Value for normal GFR ? 125 ml/min

105. Site of action of aldosterone ? Collecting duct

106. Broca's area is present in which gyrus ? lnferior frontal gYrus

107. Which cells produce HCI in stomach ? Oxyntic/ parietal cells

108. pO, pressure at sea level ? 160

109 Resting membrane potential of RBC ? - 12 mV

110. RMP of rods ? -40 mV

111 Cold stress is seen in children at what temperature ? 36 degree Celsius

112. Adrenal contains which vitamin in maximum quantity ? Vitamin C

113. Most common type of hYPoxia ? Hypoxic hypoxia

1i4. t hemoglobin molecule binds with how many oxygen molecules ? 4

115. lnhibin has inhibitory effect on which hormone ? FSH

116 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis of ? Steroid

117 Respiratory quotient of brain ? 0.97 tu A.99

118. Mannitol is ? Osmotic diuretic

'119. A(erial pressure is reduced in pressure diuresis by lowering ? Blood volume

120. Site of action of aldosterone ? Collecting duct & distal collecting tubule

121 . MINIMUM strength of stimulus required to produce action potential is known as ? Rheobase

122. Type of SGLT in kidneY ? SGLT 1

Proprioception is canied bY ? Dorsal column/ Posterior column

124, Lateral spinothalamic tract carries which sensation ? Temperature and Pain

125" Local anesthesia afiects which nerve fibers mainly ? A-delta

126. Horrnone activity is more of which hormone in REM sleep A ? cetylcholine

127. Dreaming is commoner in which phase of sleep ? REM

128. Muscle tone is absent in all skeletal muscle in REM sleep excepi ? Extraocular and facial muscles

129. Frequency of first heart sound ? 2545 Hz

130. Frequency of second heart sound ? 50 Hz

131 Golgi tendon organ is innervated by which nerve fibers ?  tb

132. Receptor for stretch ? Muscle spindle

133. Difference between pressure in alveoli and intrapleural pressure is known as ? TranspuImonary Pressure

134. Golgi tendon organ senses ? Muscle tension

1. Aphasia? Abnormality of language function that is not due to defect of vision or hearing or to motor paralysis.

2. Fluent aphasia? Lesion is in Wernicke’s auditory cortex.

3. Anomic aphasia? Difficulty in Understanding written language or pictures. Lesion is in angular gyrus without affecting Wernicke’s or Broca’s area

4. Stuttering? Associated with right cerebral dominance and widespread over activity in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.

5. Alzheimer’s disease? Severe loss of cholinergic neurons in the Nucleus basalis of Mynert and related nucler that project to hippocampus, any golala and all of the neocortex

6. Sensory information is projected from thalamus to the cortex? (i) Somatic sensory area in the post central gyrus (ii) Somatic sensory area in the sylvian fissure

7. In the somatic sensory area I corresponding to Broadman cortical areas 1,2,3? Here the fibres are arranged in the order–Legs on top of post-central gyrus and head at the foot of the gyrus.

8. Somatic Sensory area I The size of the area of the body represented in the cortex is directly proportional to the No. of specialized sensory receptors in each peripheral area of the body. Eg. lips – large area –due to great no. of nerve endings? (i) Important for position sense. (ii) Ability to Discriminate size and shape (iii) This area projects also to posterior parietal cortex (iv) Lesion of this area produces abnormalities of spatial orientation on contralateral side of the body

9. Function of parietal association cortex? Relationship of the body to extapersonal space. For eg. This part of cortex on one side helps to coordinate hand and eye movements on contralateral side.

10. Proprioception and fine touch?Most affected in cortical lesions

11 Thalamic syndrome? nuclei, caused by obstruction of the thalamogeniculate branch of posterior cerebral artery. Attacks of prolonged, severe unpleasant pain that are spontaneous, occur to trivial stimuli

12. Thalamus is the sensory relay?For all types of sensations (except olfactory sensation.)

13. The nuclei of thalamus that projects to all parts of neocortex are? Midline nuclei

 14. Touch receptors are most numerous in the? Skin of fingers and lips

15. Position sense -Static and dynamic sense - Pacinian corpuscles - Muscle spindle? Depends on impulses from sense organs in and around the joints The organs involved are slowly adapting spray endings.

 and C fibers that respond to absolute temperature not temp gradient across the skin. As these sense organs are located subepithelially, it is temperature of subcutaneous tissue that determines the response.C – tissue damage occurs. Sensation of pain as nociceptive thermoreceptors become active? Are naked nerve endings of AC About 45 C Warm receptors – 30 - 45C and cease firing below 10-3016. Temperature sense organs Cold receptors respond from 18

17. The sense organs for pain?Are the naked nerve endings found in almost every tissue of the body

18. Chemical mediators of pain that stimulate the nerve endings?(1) ATP (2) Capsaicin (3) Bradykinin (4) Serotonin (5) Histamine (6) K+ (7) Ach proteolytic enzyme

19. Muscle pain?Is due to inadequate blood supply and accumulation of Lewis ‘P’ factor (K+).

20. Pain sensitive intracranial Structure? Pial vessels

21. Allodynia? Is pain felt on normally innocuous tactile or thermal stimulus

22. Causalgia? A continuous burning pain that sometimes develops following a traumatic peripheral injury and may continue after healing is complete and no apparent peripheral damage remains.

 hair growth.23. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy? Skin affected is thin, shiny and

24. Measures used for relieving Intractable pain? (i) Chronic stimulation of dorsal column with implanted electrodes (ii) Prefrontal Lobectomy (iii) Cingulate Gyrectomy (iv) Anterolateral cordotomy

 - endorphin, Enkephalins, Dynorphins.25. Endogenous opioids?

26. Light?Causes changes of 11 cis retinene1 to all trans isomer, This alters configuration of Rhodopsin.

27. Glutamine? Neurotransmitters believed to be release from photoreceptor in response to light.

28. Acetylcholine, a synaptic transmitter in the retina, secreted by only? Amacrine cells.

29. Dopamine a synaptic transmitter in the retina? Secreted by cells between inner nuclear and inner plexiform layer. Helps during dark enlarging the receptive fields of the photoreceptors.

30. Electroretinogram (ERG)? Study of the electrical activity of the eye by recording fluctuations in the potential difference between and electrode on the cornea and another on scalp.

31. Electroretinogram a, b, and c waves?Three wave sequences formed due to light. Rapid a & b waves due to electrical activity in retina, slow c wave generated in pigment epithelium. Generated in pigment epithelium

32. Lateral geniculate nucleus Layers II, III, V? Receive signal from lateral half of ipsilateral retina.

33. Layer I, IV, VI? Receive signals from medial half of contralateral retina.

34. Layer I, II? Magnocellular layer

35. Layer III through VI? Parvocellular layer

36. V8 area?Uniquely concerned with COLOR VISION

37. V1 area? Primary visual cortex, receives input from lateral geniculate nucleus. Processes stimulus in terms of orientation, edges, motions, and recognition of shape, forms, faces

38. Primary Colors are ? Red (723-647 nm) Green (575-492 nm) Blue (492-450 nm)

39. Rhod opsin has peak sensitivity to light at? 505 nm

40. Complementary colour? Colour when mixed with any color produces a sensation of white.

41. Tests used for detecting color blindness? 1. Yarn-Matching Test 2. Ishihara Charts 3. Edridge Green Lantern 4. Holmgren’s wool

 20 minutes42. Dark Adaptation? Maximal time

43. Early portion? Cone adaptation

44. Later portion? Rod adaptation

 5mins 45. Light Adaptation? Maximal time taken

46. When apneustic center signal is strong? Depth of respiration increases

47. Depth of inspiration? increase after vagotomy

48. Major factor influencing ventilation? Arterial Pco2

49. Breaking point Breaking point can be delayed by? The point at which breathing can no longer be voluntarily inhibited

 Po2 arterial Pco2 and 50. Breaking point Breaking point can be delayed by? Due to

51. Breaking point Breaking point can be delayed by? 1) Breathing 100% O2. 2) Hyperventilating

52. Primary stimulus for central chemoreceptor? Increased H+

53. The neurotransmitter involved in bronchial dilatation, present in lungs? Vasoactive intestinal peptide

54. The neurotransmitter involved in broncho- constriction, present in lungs? Acetylcholine, Substance P, Histamine

55. Mouth to mouth respiration provides concentration of oxygen of? 16 %

56. Definitive cyanosis appears when the arterial blood contains? More than 5gm% of deoxygenated Hb

57. Factors causing Pulmonary Vasoconstriction? Endothelin Serotonin Thromboxane A2 Epinephrine, Norepinephrine Angiotensin II

58. Anatomic dead space is defined as?The volume of air in the conducting airways where gas exchanges does not occur

59. Physiologic dead space is defined as? The volume of gas in each breath that does not participate in gas exchange. It is due to anatomical dead space + the alveolar dead space i.e. alveoli that are ventilated, but not perfused and alveoli that are over ventilated relative to the amount of perfusion

60. In health normal anatomical dead space is? 150 ml

61. In healthy normal individuals, the anatomical and physiological dead space are nearly identical? Because all alveoli are functional in normal lung.

This ratio varies in various parts of lung as a result of effect of gravity High ratio at the apices. 0.8

62. Ventilation/Perfusion Ratio?

63. When ventilation exceeds perfusion, V > 1 (3.5 at apex)? Normal in top of the lung

64. When perfusion exceeds ventilation V < 1 (0.6 at base)? Normal in base of the lung

65. In normal individuals on room air the A – a (alveolar- arterial) pressure gradient for O2 is less than 15 mmHg? Pressure gradient for O2

66. Four mechanisms of hypoxemia? a) Anatomical Shunt b) V/Q mismatching c) Hypoventilation d) Physiological shunt

67. Two mechanisms of Hypercarbia? a) Increase in dead Space b) Hypoventilation

68. Inulin clearance gives an accurate estimation of the GFR? Is filtered but neither secreted nor reabsorbed Is biologically inert. But monitoring of blood levels is difficult

69. Creatinine clearance? Endogenous Substance Filtered and secreted Fairly accurate measurement of GFR Most widely used in clinical practice

70. Filtration Fraction?GFR/(Renal Plasma flow)= 0.16-0.2

71. Descending thin limb of loop of Henle? Permeable to Water

72. Ascending thin limb of loop of Henle? NaCl reabsorbed, urea diffuses into tubular lumen

73. Thick ascending limb of loop of Henle? Active reabsorption + of Na & impermeable to water

74. Distal tubule and cortical collecting duct Medullary collecting duct? Active reabsorption of NaCl In presence of ADH, reabsorbs water

75. Distal tubule and cortical collecting duct Medullary collecting duct? Active reabsorptionof NaCI Reabsorption of some amount of water, urea diffuses into the duct

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