51. Milk ejection is controlled by ? Oxytocin
52. Ovulation is due to surge of ? LH
53. Gas, responsible for respiratory drive ? Carbon dioxide
54. Temperature regulation is done by ? Hypothalamus
55. Action potential follows which law ? All or none
56. Platelets are stored at ? 20-24 degree C
57. Dreaming is commoner in which phase of sleep ? REM
58. Neurotransmitter depleted in Parkinson's disease ? Dopamine
59. Law explaining phantom limb ? Law of projection
60. Tract involved in Parkinson's disease ? Nigro-striatal pathway
61. Function of Kupffer cells in liver ? Phagocytosis
. 62. Chymotrypsinogen is activated into chymotrypsin by ? Trypsin
63. Site of action of antidiuretic hormone/ADH ? Collecting duct and OCT
64. Normal GFR is ? 125 ml/min
65. Reabsorption of water is maximum in ? PCT
66. Effect of parathormone on calcium levels ? Increase in calcium levels
67. Aortic valve closure marks the begfnning of which phase of cardiac cycle ? Phase of relaxation
68. Calcitonin is secreted by ? Parafollicular/C cells of thyroid
69. 1st heart sound is due to ? Closure ofAV valves
70. Most useful for estimating total iron content of blood ? Serum ferritin
71 . Percentage of GFR to renal plasma flow? 20%
72. Somatostatin is secreted by which cells of pancreas ? Delta cells
73. Which enzyme hydrolyzes starch in mouth ? Ptyalin
74. Location of Broaca's area ? Posterior lateral prefrontal cortex
75. MC cause of hemiplegia is because of arterial obstruction of ? Middle cerebral artery
76. Value for mean pulmonary artery pressure ? 16mmHg
77. Auditory receptors are present in which p.art of brain ? Superior temporal gyrus
78. What will be effect on respiration, if there is a transaction at junction of medulla ? Gasping and pons
79. A person is working in hot environment and is taking more of water without any ? Heat cramps salt. He is likely to have
80. Fecal mass is mainly derived from ? Undigested food
81 . In proximal convoluted tubules, H+ is exchanged for which ion ?Na+
82. Milk ejection is facilitated by which hormone ? Oxytocin
83. In JVP, 'a' wave is because of ? Atrial contraction
84. lnhibin is secreted by ? Sertoli cells ..
85. GABA is an ? Inhibitory neuron
86. Tubuloglomerular feedback is mediated by sensing ? NaCl in macula densa
87. Separation of first polar body occurs at the time of ? Ovulation
88. What can be an effect of defect in leptin ? Obesity
89. lmmunoglobulin present in bronchial secretions ? lgA
90. Head of sperm contains which organelle ? Nucleus
91. Volume of air remaining in the lungs after normal expiration is ? Functional residuaI caPacitY
92. Which gas stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors Oxygen
93. Which gland produces TSH Anterior pituitary
94. Nerves fibres which are affected first in case of hypoxia B fibres
95. Site of action of osmotic diuretics is mainly ? PCT
96. Resting membrane potential is because of permeability to which ions ? Potassium
97. Which cells produces surfactant ? Type ll pneumocYtes
9B lnsulin increases glucose uptake ln which tissue ? Skeletal muscle
99 Bicarbonate/ HCO,- is maximally absorbed in which part of kidney ? PCT
100. Most sensitive taste sensation ? Bitter
1. Phases of ventricular systole (0.3 sec)? Isovolumetric contraction, maximum ejection, reduced ejection
2. Phases of ventricular diastole (0.5 sec)? Protodiastole, Isovolumetric relaxation, 1strapid filling, Diastasis, Last rapid filling
3. The period of isovolumetric ventricular contraction is? 0.05 sec.
4. The amount of blood ejected by each ventricle at rest (Stroke volume)? 70-90 ml/beat
5. The end systolic ventricular volume is normally? 50 ml.
6. The end diastolic ventricular volume is about (called preload) Pressure in the aorta is called after load? 130 ml
7. Normal amount of pericardial fluid? 5 – 30 ml.
8. The duration of systole and diastole varies with the heart rate? The duration of systole is much more fixed than that of diastole when heart rate is increased, diastole is shortened to a much greater degree.
9. Maximum efficiency of cardiac muscle Falls to as low as? 20 to 25%
10. Cystinuria? Formation of kidneystones
11. Stroke volume (Amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle per beat)? 70ml (at least)
12. Cardiac output (The output of each ventricle per minute) at rest? = 5 L/min (Stroke volume X heart rate)
13. Cardiac Index (The cardiac output per minute per square meter of body surface)? 3.2 L/min/m 2 b.s.a
Indicator used is a radioactive substance 4) Thermo dilution method indicator used is cold saline14. Methods of Measurement of Cardiac output? 1) Doppler with Echocardio- Graphy 2) Direct Fick Method 3) Indicator Dilution method
15. Local mechanisms maintaining high blood flow to exercising muscles? Fall in tissue PO2
16. Action Potential? Rapid changes in the membrane potential that spread rapidly along the excitable cell (Eg. Nerve fibre) membrane.
17. AP is produced by? Simple diffusion of ions through channels
18. Repolarization? Via K+ efflux, mainly through voltage – gated channel. i.e., Increase in the permeability of the + membrane for K ions. K+channels exert Negative Feedback Loop.
19. After Hyperpolarization /Positive after potential? Due to continued + slow K efflux even after RMP is reached as they are slow to open and slow to close.
20. Characteristics of AP? •Self propagating, Follow All or None Law • Non–decremental, • Reversal of polarity
21. Properties of AP? • Follows all or none law • Cannot be summated • Has refractory period and threshold
22. AP start in Axon Hillock? Initial segment of neuron Axon
23. The speed of conduction? Is directly
24. Scavenger cells of CNS are? Microglial cells
25. Gating current?Hodgkin & Huxley predicted that activation of voltage gated Na+ & + K should be accompanied by a small movement of gating charge – Gating current
26. Saltatory conduction is seen in? Myelinated axons, max velocity upto 130m/sec
27. Normally an impulse conducted along axon to its termination? Called orthodromic conduction
28. The Na+ channels in myelinated neurons are highly concentrated at? Nodes of Ranvier upto 3000 to 5000 Na+ channels
29. Rheobase is? The current strength applied for an indefinite period to produce a visible response in an excitable tissue
30. Compound action potential is?Multi peaked action potential recorded form a mixed nerve trunk
31. Spike generator region of the receptor? Responsible for converting the receptor potential into a train of action potentials
32. After a cutaneous nerve section, recovery occurs in two stages? • The first phase of crude recovery (protopathic sensibility) begins after 8 weeks and is maximal in 30 weeks • Epicritic sensibility takes a year or longer to return.
33. Prefrontal cortex is the?Locus of higher intellect in the human being
34. Hippocampus plays an important role in? Learning and memory
35. Broca’s area in the postero- lateral region in frontal cortex and partly in the premotor area? Helps in word formation and speech production.
36. Area for initial processing of visual language is in? Angular gyrus of occipital lobe.
37. Area for naming objects lies in?Anterior occipital lobe and posterior temporal lobe.
38. Area concerned primarily with behaviour, emotions and motivation is in? Limbic system
39. Prefrontal association area important for? Elaboration of thoughts
40. Prosopagnosia? Inability to recognize faces. Seen in patients having extensive damage of medial undersides of both occipital lobes and medial ventral surfaces of temporal lobe.
41. Corpus callosum and anterior commissure? Are required for coordination of two sides of brain. Helps to transfer information stored in cortex of one hemisphere to corresponding cortical areas of the opposite hemisphere.
metabolism42. Alzheimer’s disease - loss of cholinergic nerve fibers in the cortex - & blood flow in the superior parietal cortex? Is characterized by progressive loss of short term memory followed by general loss of cognitive function and death in middle age.
43. Dominant hemisphere? Also called as Categorical hemisphere concerned with language function.
44. Damage to wrinkle’s a rea in dominant hemisphere? Loss of almost all intellectual function – reading, Mathematical calculation, thinking logically
45. Non dominant hemisphere? Called as representational hemisphere concerned with visuospatial relations.
46. t½ of catecholamines in the circulation? 2 mins.
47. In the medulla epinephrine & nor epinephrine are stored in granules with? ATP and chromogranin A
-receptor) Insulin and glucagon secretion (-receptor) Insulin and glucagon secretion (-receptor) 48. Effects of Catecholamines (NE-norepinephrine E- epinephrine) Heart Blood vessels Blood pressure Electrolyte (K+) Glucose? Glycogenolysis (
49. Adrenal Cortex? Secretes primarily C21 and C19 steroids C19 steroids have androgenic activity, C21 steroids have Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid activity.
50. Major androgen precursor products of the adrenals? Dehydroepiandro- sterone (DHEA) and androstenedione
- hydroxylase deficiency causes Accounts for 90-95% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia? 1) Virilization 2) Salt losing form of congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia51. 21
- hydroxylase deficiency causes? 1) Virilization 2) Salt and water Retention 3) Hypertensive form of congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia52. 11
53. ACTH Source? Anterior or pituitary gland
54. Laughter? Produced by stimulation of part of supplementary motor area.
55. Action? Increase glucocorticoid secretion, Increases sensitivity of adrenal to ACTH
56. Only polysaccharides that are digested in human gastrointestinal (G.I) tract? Starches (Glucose polymers) and their derivatives
57. Most of the dietary starch is constituted by? Amylopectin (80-90%)
58. Lactase enzyme in intestine? High activity at Birth Reduces to low levels during childhood and adulthood
59. Lactase deficiency is corrected by? Supplementing commercial lactase preparations
60. Lactase deficiency is corrected by? Yogurt is given instead of milk as it contains its own bacterial lactase.
61. Absorption of glucose in intestine and kidney at apical end is active secondary transport & basolateral end is facilitated diffusion? Glucose and Na+ share the same cotransporter sodium glucose transporter (SGLT-1)
62. Glucose when it enters theCell? Is via facilitated diffusion with the help of glucose transporters (GLUT-2)
63. Galactose transport is dependent on? Glucose transport
64. Transport/Absorption of fructose? Is via facilitated diffusion by GLUT-5 and GLUT-2
65. Absorption of pentoses? Is by simple diffusion
66. The maximal rate of glucose absorption from intestine is? 120 gm/hr
67. Glucose – Galactose Malabsorption? -SGLT – 1 defect - Diarrhoea induced by dietary glucose and galactose - No glycosuna as SGLT2 are normal
68. Absorption of amino acids into enterocytes?Is by co-transport with Na+ some AAs are transported by facilitated diffusion
69. Absorption of amino acids Is? Rapid in duodenum and jejunum, slow in ileum
70. Absorption of protein antigens (bacterial & viral proteins)? Take place in microfold
71. Regulation? Level of free circulating glucocorticoids
72. Addison’s disease? Marked pigmentation, decrease in cardiac size, chronic hypotension and decrease in cardiac work.
73. Secondary hyperaldosteronism? Weakness, hypertension, tetany, polyuria and hypokalemic alkalosis
74. Damage to non dominant hemispheres? Loss of interpretation of music, visual patterns, spetial relations, body language and intonations of peoples voices.
75. Dyslexia?Impaired ability to learn to read, 12 times more common in left handers compared to right handers.
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