One Liner (17/05/2019)
Published on May 17, 2019, 12:17 p.m.

51. Milk ejection is controlled by ? Oxytocin

52. Ovulation is due to surge of ? LH

53. Gas, responsible for respiratory drive ? Carbon dioxide

54. Temperature regulation is done by ? Hypothalamus

55. Action potential follows which law ? All or none

56. Platelets are stored at ? 20-24 degree C

57. Dreaming is commoner in which phase of sleep ? REM

58. Neurotransmitter depleted in Parkinson's disease ? Dopamine

59. Law explaining phantom limb ? Law of projection

60. Tract involved in Parkinson's disease ? Nigro-striatal pathway

61. Function of Kupffer cells in liver ? Phagocytosis

. 62. Chymotrypsinogen is activated into chymotrypsin by ? Trypsin

63. Site of action of antidiuretic hormone/ADH ? Collecting duct and OCT

64. Normal GFR is ?  125 ml/min

65. Reabsorption of water is maximum in ? PCT

66. Effect of parathormone on calcium levels ? Increase in calcium levels

67. Aortic valve closure marks the begfnning of which phase of cardiac cycle ? Phase of relaxation

68. Calcitonin is secreted by ? Parafollicular/C cells of thyroid

69. 1st heart sound is due to ? Closure ofAV valves

70. Most useful for estimating total iron content of blood ? Serum ferritin

71 . Percentage of GFR to renal plasma flow?  20%

72. Somatostatin is secreted by which cells of pancreas ? Delta cells

73. Which enzyme hydrolyzes starch in mouth ? Ptyalin

74. Location of Broaca's area ? Posterior lateral prefrontal cortex

75. MC cause of hemiplegia is because of arterial obstruction of ? Middle cerebral artery

76. Value for mean pulmonary artery pressure ? 16mmHg

77. Auditory receptors are present in which p.art of brain ? Superior temporal gyrus

78. What will be effect on respiration, if there is a transaction at junction of medulla ? Gasping and pons

79. A person is working in hot environment and is taking more of water without any ? Heat cramps salt. He is likely to have

80. Fecal mass is mainly derived from ? Undigested food

81 . In proximal convoluted tubules, H+ is exchanged for which ion ?Na+

82. Milk ejection is facilitated by which hormone ? Oxytocin

83. In JVP, 'a' wave is because of ? Atrial contraction

84. lnhibin is secreted by ? Sertoli cells ..

85. GABA is an ? Inhibitory neuron

86. Tubuloglomerular feedback is mediated by sensing ? NaCl in macula densa

87. Separation of first polar body occurs at the time of ?  Ovulation

88. What can be an effect of defect in leptin ? Obesity

89. lmmunoglobulin present in bronchial secretions ? lgA

90. Head of sperm contains which organelle ? Nucleus

91. Volume of air remaining in the lungs after normal expiration is ?  Functional residuaI caPacitY

92. Which gas stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors Oxygen

93. Which gland produces TSH Anterior pituitary

94. Nerves fibres which are affected first in case of hypoxia B fibres

95. Site of action of osmotic diuretics is mainly ? PCT

96. Resting membrane potential is because of permeability to which ions ? Potassium

97. Which cells produces surfactant ? Type ll pneumocYtes

9B lnsulin increases glucose uptake ln which tissue ? Skeletal muscle

99 Bicarbonate/ HCO,- is maximally absorbed in which part of kidney ? PCT

100. Most sensitive taste sensation ? Bitter

1. Phases of ventricular systole (0.3 sec)? Isovolumetric contraction, maximum ejection, reduced ejection

2. Phases of ventricular diastole (0.5 sec)? Protodiastole, Isovolumetric relaxation, 1strapid  filling, Diastasis, Last rapid filling

3. The period of isovolumetric ventricular contraction is? 0.05 sec.

4. The amount of blood ejected by each ventricle at rest (Stroke volume)? 70-90 ml/beat

5. The end systolic ventricular volume is normally? 50 ml.

6. The end diastolic ventricular volume is about (called preload) Pressure in the aorta is called after load? 130 ml

7. Normal amount of pericardial fluid? 5 – 30 ml.

8. The duration of systole and diastole varies with the heart rate? The duration of systole is much more fixed than that of diastole when heart rate is increased, diastole is shortened to a much greater degree.

9. Maximum efficiency of cardiac muscle Falls to as low as? 20 to 25%

10. Cystinuria? Formation of kidneystones

11. Stroke volume (Amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle per beat)? 70ml (at least)

12. Cardiac output (The output of each ventricle per minute) at rest? = 5 L/min (Stroke volume X heart rate)

13. Cardiac Index (The cardiac output per minute per square meter of body surface)? 3.2 L/min/m 2 b.s.a

 Indicator used is a radioactive substance 4) Thermo dilution method indicator used is cold saline14. Methods of Measurement of Cardiac output? 1) Doppler with Echocardio- Graphy 2) Direct Fick Method 3) Indicator Dilution method

15. Local mechanisms maintaining high blood flow to exercising muscles? Fall in tissue PO2

16. Action Potential? Rapid changes in the membrane potential that spread rapidly along the excitable cell (Eg. Nerve fibre) membrane.

17. AP is produced by? Simple diffusion of ions through channels

18. Repolarization? Via K+ efflux, mainly through voltage – gated channel. i.e., Increase in the permeability of the + membrane for K ions. K+channels exert Negative Feedback Loop.

19. After Hyperpolarization /Positive after potential? Due to continued + slow K efflux even after RMP is reached as they are slow to open and slow to close.

20. Characteristics of AP? •Self propagating, Follow All or None Law • Non–decremental, • Reversal of polarity

21. Properties of AP? • Follows all or none law • Cannot be summated • Has refractory period and threshold

22. AP start in Axon Hillock? Initial segment of neuron Axon

23. The speed of conduction? Is directly

24. Scavenger cells of CNS are? Microglial cells

25. Gating current?Hodgkin & Huxley predicted that activation of voltage gated Na+ & + K should be accompanied by a small movement of gating charge – Gating current

26. Saltatory conduction is seen in? Myelinated axons, max velocity upto 130m/sec

27. Normally an impulse conducted along axon to its termination? Called orthodromic conduction

28. The Na+ channels in myelinated neurons are highly concentrated at? Nodes of Ranvier upto 3000 to 5000 Na+ channels

29. Rheobase is? The current strength applied for an indefinite period to produce a visible response in an excitable tissue

30. Compound action potential is?Multi peaked action potential recorded form a mixed nerve trunk

31. Spike generator region of the receptor? Responsible for converting the receptor potential into a train of action potentials

32. After a cutaneous nerve section, recovery occurs in two stages? • The first phase of crude recovery (protopathic sensibility) begins after 8 weeks and is maximal in 30 weeks • Epicritic sensibility takes a year or longer to return.

33. Prefrontal cortex is the?Locus of higher intellect in the human being

34. Hippocampus plays an important role in? Learning and memory

35. Broca’s area in the postero- lateral region in frontal cortex and partly in the premotor area? Helps in word formation and speech production.

36. Area for initial processing of visual language is in? Angular gyrus of occipital lobe.

37. Area for naming objects lies in?Anterior occipital lobe and posterior temporal lobe.

38. Area concerned primarily with behaviour, emotions and motivation is in? Limbic system

39. Prefrontal association area important for? Elaboration of thoughts

40. Prosopagnosia? Inability to recognize faces. Seen in patients having extensive damage of medial undersides of both occipital lobes and medial ventral surfaces of temporal lobe.

41. Corpus callosum and anterior commissure? Are required for coordination of two sides of brain. Helps to transfer information stored in cortex of one hemisphere to corresponding cortical areas of the opposite hemisphere.

 metabolism42. Alzheimer’s disease - loss of cholinergic nerve fibers in the cortex -  & blood flow in the superior parietal cortex? Is characterized by progressive loss of short term memory followed by general loss of cognitive function and death in middle age.

43. Dominant hemisphere? Also called as Categorical hemisphere concerned with language function.

44. Damage to wrinkle’s a rea in dominant hemisphere? Loss of almost all intellectual function – reading, Mathematical calculation, thinking logically

45. Non dominant hemisphere? Called as representational hemisphere concerned with visuospatial relations.

46. t½ of catecholamines in the circulation? 2 mins.

47. In the medulla epinephrine & nor epinephrine are stored in granules with? ATP and chromogranin A

-receptor) Insulin and glucagon secretion (-receptor)  Insulin and glucagon secretion (-receptor) 48. Effects of Catecholamines (NE-norepinephrine E- epinephrine) Heart Blood vessels Blood pressure Electrolyte (K+) Glucose? Glycogenolysis (

49. Adrenal Cortex? Secretes primarily C21 and C19 steroids C19 steroids have androgenic activity, C21 steroids have Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid activity.

50. Major androgen precursor products of the adrenals? Dehydroepiandro- sterone (DHEA) and androstenedione

- hydroxylase deficiency causes Accounts for 90-95% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia? 1) Virilization 2) Salt losing form of congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia51. 21

- hydroxylase deficiency causes? 1) Virilization 2) Salt and water Retention 3) Hypertensive form of congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia52. 11

53. ACTH Source? Anterior or pituitary gland

54. Laughter? Produced by stimulation of part of supplementary motor area.

55. Action? Increase glucocorticoid secretion, Increases sensitivity of adrenal to ACTH

56. Only polysaccharides that are digested in human gastrointestinal (G.I) tract? Starches (Glucose polymers) and their derivatives

57. Most of the dietary starch is constituted by? Amylopectin (80-90%)

58. Lactase enzyme in intestine? High activity at Birth Reduces to low levels during childhood and adulthood

59. Lactase deficiency is corrected by? Supplementing commercial lactase preparations

60. Lactase deficiency is corrected by? Yogurt is given instead of milk as it contains its own bacterial lactase.

61. Absorption of glucose in intestine and kidney at apical end is active secondary transport & basolateral end is facilitated diffusion? Glucose and Na+ share the same cotransporter sodium glucose transporter (SGLT-1)

62. Glucose when it enters theCell? Is via facilitated diffusion with the help of glucose transporters (GLUT-2)

63. Galactose transport is dependent on? Glucose transport

64. Transport/Absorption of fructose? Is via facilitated diffusion by GLUT-5 and GLUT-2

65. Absorption of pentoses? Is by simple diffusion

66. The maximal rate of glucose absorption from intestine is? 120 gm/hr

67. Glucose – Galactose Malabsorption? -SGLT – 1 defect - Diarrhoea induced by dietary glucose and galactose - No glycosuna as SGLT2 are normal

68. Absorption of amino acids into enterocytes?Is by co-transport with Na+ some AAs are transported by facilitated diffusion

69.     Absorption of amino acids Is? Rapid in duodenum and jejunum, slow in ileum

70.     Absorption of protein antigens (bacterial & viral proteins)? Take place in microfold

71.     Regulation? Level of free circulating glucocorticoids

72.     Addison’s disease? Marked pigmentation, decrease in cardiac size, chronic hypotension and decrease in cardiac work.

73.     Secondary hyperaldosteronism? Weakness, hypertension, tetany, polyuria and hypokalemic alkalosis

74.     Damage to non dominant hemispheres? Loss of interpretation of music, visual patterns, spetial relations, body language and intonations of peoples voices.

75.     Dyslexia?Impaired ability to learn to read, 12 times more common in left handers compared to right handers.

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