1) Sulphonamides are conjugated by:
(A) Glucoronic acid
(D) Acetyl CoA
2. The pentose phosphate cycle produces which of the following sugars?
3. The oxidation of primary alcohol group in glucose results in:
(A) Gluconic acid
(B) Glutaric acid
(C) Glucuronic acid
(D) Hyaluronic acid
4. Major mono-oxygenase in endoplasmic reticulum is:
B. Cytochrome P450
C. Epoxide hydrolase
D. Glutathione transferase
5. During gluconeogenesis reducing equivalents from mitochondria to the cytosol are transported by:
6. Molisch’s test is positive in all Except:
7. Which metabolite of TCA cycle is used in detoxification of ammonia in brain:
(A) Alpha ketoglutarate
8. Skeletal muscle is deficient in
(A) Glucose — 6 — phosphatase
9. Guaiac test is used for
(C) Occult blood in stool
10. Aldose sugar is converted to ketose sugar by
(A) Oxido reductase
· THE BEST WEB-APP APP TO CRACK NEET-PG FOR FREE
- DMA APP for NEET-PG: with 30,000 MCQs (Mocks/subject wise & chapter wise) + Image based questions + Review materials + apprehended images bank & Aids (FREE)
- Register @: www.dma.testpress.in (Choose only PGMEE/NEET)
- Download android app:https://play.google.com/store/...
· THE BEST WEB-APP APP TO CRACK FMGE FOR FREE
- DMA APP for FMGE: with 25,000 MCQs (FMGE past papers/Mocks/subject wise & chapter wise) + Image based questions + Study materials & Aids (FREE)
- Register @: www.dma.testpress.in (Choose only FMGE India)
- Download android app:https://play.google.com/store/...
1. ANS. (D) (Acetyl CoA)
• Conjugation of Drugs (phase I metabolite with endogenous substrates): -
(1) Glucuronide conjugation - eg. chloramphenicol, Aspirin, phenacetin, morphine, metronidazole, Bilirubin, steroid hormones, and thyroxine.
(2) Acelvkition: conjugated with help of Acetvl CoA à eg. sulfonamide isoniazid, PAS, Hydralazine, procainamide, (by enzyme Acetyl transferase)
(3) Methylation - Methionine and cysteine acting as methyl doners, eg. Adrenaline, histamine nicotinic acids.
(4) Sulfate conjugation eg. Phenolic compounds (chromphenicol) and, Adrenal and sex steroids.
(5) Glycine conjugation — eg. salicylates and drugs having carboxylic acid groups.
2. The answer is (D) (Ribose)
The pentose phosphate cycle is a side pathway whose primary purpose is to produce ribose and NADPH. Little ribose is present in the bloodstream, so tissues must be able to synthesize their own ribose through the pentose phosphate cycle. The complete pathway is active in liver, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex, thyroid, erythrocytes, testis, and lactating mammary gland. Skeletal muscle has only low levels of some of the enzymes of the pathway but is still able to synthesize ribose through an incomplete pathway.
3. Ans. [C] (Glucuronic acids)
• Carbohydrates are polyhydroxyl Alcohol with Aldehyde group or ketone group.
• Glucuromc acids are synthesized from glucose.
Glucose to G-6-PO4, G-6-PO4 is converted to glucose —1-PO4, which then reacts with UTP to form active UDP glucose. Then UDP glucose is oxidized at carbon 6 by a two step process to glucuronate (Glucuronic acid)
• Glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides
•Consists of = carbohydrotes + Amino sugars_+ uronic acid.
Glycosaaminoglycans + Proteins = Proteoglycans.
Eg. Hyaluronic acids, chondroitin sulfate and Heparin - function à as holding Large quantities of H2O à cushing and Lubricating
4. Ans. (B). Cytochrome P450
• The major monooxygenases in endoplasmic reticutum are cylochrome P450s
• Cytochrome P450s catalyse the hydroxylation o fxenobiotics.
5. Ans. is ‘(A)’ Malate
• Gluconeogenesis — A Quick Review
• Site = Liver and Kidney
• Substrates = V. imp.
1. Glucogenic amino acids
Oxalo acetic acid
Alpha keto glutarate
2. Lactates 3. Pyruvates
4. Glycerol 5. Propionic acid
• In gluconeogenesis all reaction occur in cytosol except OAA which is formed inside mitochondrion and transferred across mitochondrial membrane by 2 mechanisms
(a) Mainly as Malate (b) As citrate
• Gluconeogenesis is reversal of glycolytic pathway except for presence of 4 barriers.
(a) Pyruvate and phosphoenol pyruvate
(b) Fructose 1, 6-bi-po4 and fructose 6
(c) Glucose 6p and glucose — (Glucose —6-phosphatase)
(d) Glucose lp and glycogen
6. Ans. (D) (Phospholipids)
• Molisch test is the test for sugars. Gives +ve test with all sugar (red violet ring)
• Phospholipids à do not contain sugar, that is why give negative test.
7. Ans. (A) (Alpha-ketoglutarate)
1. Although brain tissue can form urea, this tissue does not appear to play a significant role in ammonia removal. In brain tissue, the major mechanism for detoxificaiton of NH3 is glutamine
Formation ie. L-glutatmate + NH4+
2. If NH3 level in blood is elevated, the supply of blood glutamate available to the brain is inadequate for formation of glutamine. The brain therefore also must synthesize glutamate from a-ketoglutarate ie. citric acid cycle intermediates are diverted to the synthesis of a-ketoglutarate and subsequently of glutamine.
8. Ans. (A) (Glu-6-phosphatase)
• Glucose-6-phosphatase present in liver and kidney (not found in muscles)
• Hexokinase à present all cells except Liver and pancreatic cells
9. Ans. (C) (Occult blood in stool)
Guaiac is a resin obtained from the trees of Guaiacum officinale or G. sanctum, an alcoholic solution of guaiac is used for testing occult blood.
- Test for fructose à Selivanoff’s test
- Test for pentose (Ribose or deoxy ribose): à Bial’s test
- IN Pancreatitis: - Estimation of Amylase in urine by Wohlgemuth’s method-
10. Ans. (D) (Isomerase)
Aldose à glucose
Ketose à Fructose
- Carbohydrates are Aldehyde (Aldose) or ketone (ketoses) derivatives of the polyhydric alcohol
- Aldose-Ketose-Isomerism à Fructose has the same molecular formula as glucose but differs in its structural formula since there is a potential keto group in position 2 the anomeric carbon of fructose whereas Aldehyde gp at 1 position in glucose.
- Epimers (of monosacchorides) àIsomers differing as a result of variations in configuration of the —OH and —H on carbon atom 2,3, and 4 of glucose are known as Epimers. Eg. Biologically most important Epimers of glucose are Mannose and galactose, formed by epimerization at carbon 2 and 4, respectively.